1.0 Introduction

This Face moisturiser provides excellent skin hydration to normal or combination skin in a more natural and effective way. This powerful Ceramide formulation helps to provide daily skin nourishment, protects from extra drying out of skin. & restores skin hydration by repairing “Skin Barrier”.

⦁ What is Skin Barrier and How its Repair relating to skin hydration:

Outermost layer of epidermis; Stratum corneum is made of layers of dead cells called Corneocytes. The extracellular spaces around the dead cells are filled with a binding substance made of Ceramides and Lipids. Ceramides, Cholesterol and other saturated fatty acids constitute 50%, 25% and 25% of total binding substance respectively.
This binding substance along with dead skin layer acts as a fence or skin barrier between the outer environment and body. This skin barrier does not allow harmful substances such as microbes to pass through it easily and prevents them to enter into the body. Likewise, it holds the moisture within the skin, preventing the moisture from evaporating into surrounding environment and thereby skin barrier maintains skin hydration.
Hydration of skin directly depends on the performance of Skin barrier. The skin barrier protects against extensive water loss in one direction (inside-outside barrier) and against the invasion of harmful substances from the environment (outside-inside barrier).

(Credits: bondenavant)

In disrupted skin barrier function, the binding substance is damaged and thus skin can’t hold the moisture within for a long time, the moisture quickly evaporates into the surrounding environment. This process of water loss is called as Total Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL). If TEWL continues to be unattended, it leads to dehydrated or dry skin.

⦁ What are Ceramides:

Ceramides are the major constituents (50%) of skin barrier material and are important for efficient functioning of skin barrier. Chemically, Ceramides are formed by the amidation reaction between sphingoid base and fatty acid, which are abundantly available in epidermis.
CERAMIDE = Sphingoid base + Fatty acid

⦁ Types of Ceramides:


There are more than 340 ceramides are identified in human stratum corneum and are initially grouped into nine classes of ceramides, namely CER1, CER2 to CER9. In 1993, when studying ceramide composition of psoriatic scale, Motta et a!. suggested a simple system of nomenclature of ceramides that is based on ceramide structure. Initially, they divided ceramides into five classes. In this system, the amide-linked fatty acid is denoted by one letter: N, normal fatty acid; A, alpha hydroxy acid; 0, omega hydroxy acid. Likewise, S designates the long-chain base component for sphingosine; and H for 6-hydroxy sphingosine or P for phytosphingosine. The presence of an ester-linked fatty acid in acyl ceramide is indicated by a prefix E.
Based on the combination of fatty acid and sphingnoid base & nature of the chemical bond between them, the classification further continued to 12 classes as shown below.
Structures and nomenclature of ceramides (CERs) in human stratum corneum (SC)

Why to choose EI formulated face moisturiser over General Moisturiser:

Barrier repair formulations are more advanced than the general moisturizers. General moisturizers provide skin hydration only by forming an occlusive layer on surface of skin and thus prevent excess TEWL. Moisturizers never repairs the skin from inside, unlike barrier repair formulations, which provide nourishment to damaged skin and enhance barrier repair functioning

⦁ TEWL & Skin Hydration:


Both TEWL and Skin Hydration are inter and inversely related factors to analyze and choose suitable moisturizer. The common factors that have influence on both of them are below.
Factors within the body: Age, Ethnicity (arguably), Anatomical Position/ body regions, Body Temperature, Circadian Rhythms/Biological clock, Sweating, Skin Health.
Factors from outside: Seasons, Daylight, Pollution, Nature of work, Smoking and Nature of work.
As Skin is affected by numerous dynamic factors, there is one permanent factor which rules from inside is, your Genes. As your genetic material decides your skin texture and nature, it is obvious that we take measures in accordance with skin types. Aging alters the skin activities and hinders proper hydration from within, where we need to take care of it with moisturizers with longer activity.

2.0 Key Actives


Ingredients                                                       Composition (% w/w)
CERAMIDE                                                                         1
VITAMIN E ACETATE                                                       0.5
HYDROLYSED ETHYL UREA                                      1.00
NIACINAMIDE                                                                     1
SODIUM HYALURONIC ACID                                      0.1

 Why only Ceramide AP, NP & EOP are used in EI Face Moisturizer:

There are 340+ ceramides are identified in human stratum corneum. All of them were broadly classified into 5 major classes based on their chemical nature. However, Ceramide AP, NP & EOP showed high barrier activity and found in higher concentrations in human stratum corneum, and are found less in damaged skin barrier of the stratum corneum. Thus, these three types are taken into consideration to initiate skin barrier repair.
On the other hand, Ceramide NP and AP are derived from natural sources by fermentation process. Ceramide EOP, NP and AP showed no toxicity in clinical studies and are widely accepted types of ceramides with absolute safety and no sensitivity or irritation with human skin.

Ceramide NP and Ceramide AP are natural human type phytoceramides synthesized from fermentation of cakes such as Soy sauce, Sake, Shochu and Awamori etc. These naturally derived ceramides show high barrier activity among all other Ceramides.

 Ceramide EPO

In a healthy skin, essential fatty acid called linoleic acid is required for the formation of Ceramide EOP. In essential fatty acid deficiency, linoleic acid is replaced by oleic acid. This creates disorder in skin epidermis resulting in increased TEWL. Ceramide EOP is included in the formulation to nourish damaged skin barrier and regulate TEWL in a more efficient way.
Chemically, Ceramide EOP, formerly known under the INCI name Ceramide 1 A, is a N- acylated sphingolipid consisting of Phyto sphingosine (P) having the D-erythro structure linked to an omega-hydroxy acid (O) which is esterified (E) with a saturated or unsaturated fatty acid.

 Ceramide AP:

Ceramide AP is natural human type phytoceramides synthesised from fermentation of cakes such as Soy sauce, Sake, Sochi and Awamori etc. This naturally derived ceramide shows high barrier activity among all other Ceramides and is required largely to restore healthy epidermis.
Ceramide AP, formerly known under the INCI name Ceramide 6 II, is the N-acylated sphingolipid consisting of Phyto sphingosine (P) having the D- erythro structure linked to an alpha-hydroxy (A) saturated or unsaturated fatty acid.

Ceramide NP:

Ceramide NP is also a natural human type phytoceramides synthesized from fermentation of cakes such as Soy sauce, Sake, Sochi and Awamori etc. This naturally derived ceramide shows high barrier activity among all other Ceramides and is required largely to restore healthy epidermis. Ceramide NP has been reported to be reduced in the SC of patients with atopic eczema. Negative correlation between Ceramide NP and trans epidermal water loss (TEWL).
Ceramide NP, formerly known under the INCI name Ceramide 3, is the N-acylated sphingolipid consisting of Phyto Sphingosine (P) having the D-erythro structure linked to normal (N) saturated or unsaturated fatty acid.

⦁ Phytosphingosine:

It is a phospholipid. Phytosphingosine is also one of the most widely distributed natural sphingoid bases, which is abundant in fungi and plants, and also found in animals including humans.
It acts as a precursor to the formation of ceramides as well as it is formed by the breakdown of ceramides. It has natural anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory properties.
⦁ Hydrolyzed Ethyl Urea:

Hydroxyethyl urea is a colorless and odorless moisturizing agent supplied as a 50% aqueous solution. It slows down the moisture loss and it increases the water content of the top layers of the skin.

 Vitamin E Acetate:


Due to the antioxidant effects of Vitamin E acetate, it helps in reducing cell damage and promotes hair growth. It gives a lustrous and shiny look to the rough and damaged hair.



Niacinamide works on inhibiting excess oil production from sweat glands. It helps in preventing acne and thereby formation of pigments. Niacinamide helps in below ways.
⦁ Regulates sebaceous (oil) production
⦁ Effective anti-inflammatory agent
⦁ Inhibits transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes
⦁ Upregulates the production of epidermal ceramide synthesis
⦁ Encourages collagen synthesis
⦁ No adverse effects
⦁ Topical Niacinamide is labelled safe in pregnancy and during the lactation period.

How it helps your skin


This face moisturiser helps providing skin hydration with normal or combination skin types. It repairs damaged skin barrier and provides excellent hydration in a more efficient and natural way.
Indeed, skin doesn’t behave in the same way thought out the year, it changes with the seasons. In such cases it wouldn’t be possible to use same moisturiser in both hot and cold seasons. In winter, skin usually becomes dry and needs to be taken care of with strong hydration which lasts for a long time; on the other hand, in summer we better need non- greasy formulations and skin does not need additional hydration as much as in winter. In order to regulate this difference and to avoid switching moisturisers, EI formulated a premium grade face moisturiser, which helps in skin hydration round the year. It provides skin hydration by restoring lost epidermal barrier functioning and by regulating TEWL and holding moisture onto the skin surface, unlike conventional moisturisers which just to cling onto skin surface and need to change with the seasons.

Ceramides in combination with Cholesterol and Phytosphingosine help restore the lost barrier functioning by incorporating above actives into stratum corneum of dry skin. Thus, it initiates the healing of damaged barrier from inside and helps in normalising TEWL.

What’s new in this face moisturiser formula?
This is an advanced formula helps normal or combination skin types with excellent hydration, in all seasons with good barrier repair activity.

How to Use

⦁ After cleansing the face and neck, take generous amount in palm and apply on face and neck evenly.
⦁ Apply twice daily or whenever required.


Literature References

⦁ S Motta. M Monti. S Sesana. R Caputo, S Carelli and R Ghidoni, Ceramide composition of the psoriati~ scale, Biochim Biophys Acta 1182147-151 (1993)

⦁ Jakob Mutanu Ju et al, Ceramides and Barrier Function in Healthy Skin, Acta Derm Venereol 2010; 90: 350–353.

⦁ Nava Dayan, Stratum Corneum: The Role of Lipids and Ceramides, Cosmetics & Toiletries magazine ,Vol. 121, No. 1/January 2006.

⦁ Safety Assessment of Ceramides as Used in Cosmetics; The 2014 Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel.

⦁ Yoshinori Masukawa, Hirofumi Narita, Eri Shimizu, Naoki Kondo, Yoshiya Sugai, Tsuyoshi Oba, Rika Homma, Junko Ishikawa, Yutaka Takagi, Takashi Kitahara, Yoshinori Takema, and Katsumi Kita, Characterization of overall ceramide species in human stratum corneumJ. Lipid Res. 2008 49:(7) 1466-1476. First Published on March 23, 2008, doi:10.1194/jlr.M800014-JLR200.

⦁ Imokawa G, Abe A, Jin K, Higaki Y, Kawashima M, Hidano A. Decreased level of ceramides in stratum corneum of atopic dermatitis: an etiologic factor in atopic dry skin? J Invest Dermatol. 1991 Apr;96(4):523-6. PubMed PMID: 2007790